Top Ideas on Decontamination of Medical Facilities
The process of cleansing a substance or object to remove hazardous material including infectious diseases, radioactive substances and chemicals is decontamination. The purpose of this process is to prevent the spread of microorganism and other noxious contaminants which has the risk of threatening the health of human beings or animals and may damage the environment. The application of decontamination is majorly in the medical fields which include; veterinary science, surgery and dentistry.
Aside from the medical field also in food preparation, environmental science and forensic science are the areas where decontamination is applied. There are three levels of decontamination in order to eliminate pathogens or other substances from a spoiled implement. The three levels include disinfection, sterilization and sanitization.
Disinfectants are used in the level of disinfection in order to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. Not all microorganisms are killed by bacterial spores by disinfection but its effective to some extent. The process of disinfection also is less effective than sterilization which is an extreme physical chemical process that kill all types of microorganisms. The disinfection process works by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
Disinfectants are of various types which include; oxidizing agents, phenolics, quaternary ammonium compounds , inorganic compounds and others. Inorganic compounds as a type of disinfectant include; chlorine, acids and bases, terpenes, metals and iodine.Quaternary compounds are a large group of related compounds in which some have concentrated formulations.A large group of related compounds which have concentrated formulations are quaternary ammonium compounds. The group of chlorine as an inorganic compound includes hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite and chlorine.
There are several methods of decontamination which include physical cleaning, disinfection, antisepsis, sterilization, ultrasonic cleaning and water purification. The process involving removal of biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases and undesirable chemicals from water is water purification. Disinfection of drinking water is done through the process of purification which makes it suitable for human consumption.
The process of water purification ensures the following applications are fulfilled and they include medical, pharmacological, industrial and chemical. The process of water purification involves three methods which are chemical, physical and chemical.
Reduction in concentration of particulate matter which are parasites, bacteria, fungi, algae and suspended particles with also the inclusion of the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter. Sterilization is a method and level of decontamination which refers to any process that removes or eliminates, deactivates or kills all forms of life and any other biological agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses, unicellular organisms that are present in a specified region such as the volume of a fluid, medication or in a compound that is culture media. The process of sterilization is achieved through heating, irradiation, filtration and high pressure.